The wind turbine spins the magnet that creates voltage and then current through the process of electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction is when there are loops and loops of wire and a magnet passes through or over the loops of wires it creates a difference in voltage in the wire which in turn generates current in the wires. The current generated depends on the amount of wire and the strength of the magnets magnetic field.
Rotational inertia is the force that determines the ability and quality of the spinning body of the wind turbine. The mass of the rotating body was mostly in the center and the rest was distributed evenly around the edges
Materials & Method
To make a wind turbine of your own you’ll need wire, magnets, washer, plastic bottle, cardboard, tape (preferably electrical tape), a paper clip, and a wooden rod.
The magnets must be placed above or next to the wire and must all be facing (North/South orientation) the same way so that the wire feels the same force as the magnets spin around it. This induces the voltage of the wire so the magnet placement is very important to the actual effectiveness of the wind turbine. (see picture bellow)
Coils of Wire
The wires must be placed into coils, multiple coils are fine, but they must be connected in a complete circuit for them to contribute to generating electricity. I strapped each coil to my base. The coils are very close to the magnets so that when they spin the force on the wires is greater. (see picture below)
Wind Catching Device
To get the magnets to spin there needs to something that can catch the wind. My model was a vertical wind turbine and I used a plastic bottle to catch the wind. I cut the bottle in half and attached it to my spinning base on an offset. (see picture below)
Overall Wind Turbine
The turbine was able to generate electricity, despite the minuscule value. The turbine was put next to a fan that was cranked up to the max. It was very interesting to see the entire thing spin and work just as the physics concepts tell us. (see picture below)
My wind turbine generated .005 volts and amps. I was not able to light the lightbulb as I did not generate near enough electricity to make it function. (see video above)
The factors that influence the amount of electricity generated is the amount of wire, the amount of magnets, and the speed of the magnets spinning. The more wire the more space there is for the magnets to induce a difference in voltage and more current is thus created. You can add more magnets which will increase the magnetic fields influence on the coils of wire and help to generate more electricity. You can also increase the speed at which the magnets are spinning to increase the rate that each wire is induced with voltage. These are the three ways I have discovered that helped increase the amount of electricity generated. This project was fun and interesting and there is a sense of satisfaction when you get your wind turbine to generate electricity. If I had to do this project again I think I would do most everything the same except I would add much more wire and magnets than I had on my last turbine.